A peaceful Sunday in Texas turns bloody. Four federal agents
die. And a band of religious fanatics prepares for the last days.
One of the deadliest days in U.S. law enforcement history began
quietly on the flat plains outside Waco, Texas. About 8:30 Sunday
morning, an undercover agent who had infiltrated the bizarre cult
known as the Branch Davidians heard the phone ring in the group's
sprawling compound. Soon after self-styled Messiah David Koresh
was fervently reading Scriptures. The agent apparently thought
little of the call at the time. He left and reported an "all
clear" to his waiting colleagues from the federal Bureau
of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.
The ATF walked into an ambush. About an hour later, more than
100 agents in blue jumpsuits and flak jackets took up positions
around the compound, only to be met by a hail of gunfire from
assault rifles and semiautomatic weapons. As agents hoisted ladders
and climbed onto the roof of the building, they were peppered
with gunshots coming through the walls. Three National Guard
helicopters closed in and also came under fire. Two were hit
and forced to land. When the shooting had stopped 45 minutes
later, four ATF agents were dead, 15 others lay wounded and Koresh
was holed up inside the compound with more than 100 followers,
including 38 young children, and enough guns and ammunition to
wage a little war.
The assault turned into a siege. By the weekend the force encircling
the compound had grown to more than 400 federal agents, buttressed
by stated and local police, SWAT teams, armored personnel carriers
and Bradley fighting vehicles. No one knew what carnage was inside.
Early on, Koresh told radio stations by phone that his 2-year
old daughter had been killed and he'd been hit in "the gut"
in the gun battle. He also left a message on his mother's answering
machine in Chandler, Texas: "Hello, Mama. It's your boy
shot me and I'm dying, all right? But I'll be back real soon,
OK? I'll see y'all in the skies." Koresh evidently made
a miraculous recovery over the next few days - granting frequent
interviews before agents cut his phone lines and promising to
surrender if a rambling 58-minute discourse was aired. Several
stations played it. But Koresh didn't come out. He said God
had told him to wait.
The Feds waited, too, determined to avoid more bloodshed. As
the week wore on, Koresh released 21 children and two elderly
women, but he still had 47 women, 43 men and 17 kids-some of whom
he fathered-with him inside. How long they would last was anybody's
guess: the group had stockpiled enough food for months and had
its own wells and power generators. Families as far away as Britain
and Australia, where Koresh recruited followers, waited for word
of loved ones. "They are all at the mercy of this man.
We can only hope he comes to his senses," says Lloyd Hardial,
whose sister moved from Manchester last year to join Koresh.
Making send of the raid was a difficult task, too. Bill Clinton
let it be known that he wanted answers. "What the hell happened
here?" Mack McLarty, his chief of staff, demanded of a top
Justice Department official. But Justice was equally baffled.
The ATF, a division of Treasury, had launched the operation,
based on intelligence that the Branch Davidians were amassing
heavy armaments. Clinton ordered the rival FBI in, and the bureau
quickly took over, deploying its elite Hostage Rescue Team. Some
FBI agent brought along Bibles. "This guy's a Bible-citing
machine," said one. "We have to speak his language."
Publicly, authorities were united in their efforts to subdue Koresh
peacefully and not fix blame for the fiasco-at least until it
was over. But FBI and other experts blasted the ATF's tactics,
beginning with the decision to take the compound by force, "It's
against our doctrine to do a frontal assault when women and children
are present," said one FBI man. ATF officials said they
had investigated the cult for months and practiced the raid repeatedly.
"We were outgunned. They had bigger firearms than we did,"
said spokesperson Sharon Wheeler. "'Outgunned' is a euphemism
for 'outplanned,' or 'unplanned'," said former New York City
police commissioner Benjamin Ward. "They did it backwards.
The accepted way is to talk first and shoot second."
That seems particularly apt in a potential hostage situation.
There were eerie parallels to the Idaho incident last year with
white supremacist Randy Weaver. Feds had been after Weaver for
months, but he was holed up, armed, in a cabin with his family.
Washington sharpshooters came and fire fights erupted, killing
Weaver's son, his wife and a U.S. marshal. He remained barricaded
with two wounded adults and three girls, holding off 200 agents
for 11 days before negotiators persuaded him to surrender. (One
ATF source noted that the U.S. marshals answer to Justice officials:
"Their underwear is not entirely clean in these situations
Clearly the ATF had lost the element of surprise in the Waco raid,
and either not realized ir or decided to forge ahead anyway.
The Los Angeles Times reported that even before agents had deployed
from the staging area in downtown Waco, one was heard shouting:
"We gotta move. He's been tipped off. He's nervous and
he's reading his Bible and he's shaking." ATF officials
denied that report but refused to comment on most other aspects
of the raid, leaving rampant speculation about how the group might
have been tipped. Conceivably, cult members could have monitored
police scamners. The Waco Tribune-Herald reported that just before
the raid, a voice came over saying, "There no guns in the
windows. Tell them it's a go."
The Tribune-Herald also played a role in the events. The day
before the raid, the paper began publishing an extraordinary series
on the cult based on months of reporting. ATF officials had asked
the paper to hold off, citing its own investigation. The paper
ran it anyway, citing a duty to warn the public about what editor
Bob Lott called "this menace in our community." Curiously,
the Tribune-Herald also had seven staffers in the area of the
compound when the shotting started Sunday morning.
Koresg was pretty savvy himself. Close followers told reporters
the group had been suspicious all along of the undercover agent
and a colleague who had moved in across the road; the agent visited
at times, profession interest in the Bible. Had Koresh lured
the Feds into an ambush?
There were other questions, too: why hadn't ATG agents tried
to apprehend Koresh on one of has forays outside the compound?
Officials claimed he had stopped venturing out. But Waco merchants
said they'd seen him in recent weeks, perusing gun shops and sipping
iced tead at a pub. Some residents said the Koresh they knew
didn't match the macabre portrait painted by the Feds. "He
was like a regular Joe," said Margaret Jones, who liked talking
religion and politics with him. "The people with him certainly
didn't seem brainwashed."
But some former cult members thought authorities should have stepped
in long ago, Much of the warnings about Koresh's activities came
from a breakaway group in Australia. The group hired a private
investigator to alert local lawmen; he was told authorities couldn't
act without more evidence. Last spring officials of the Seventh-Day
Adventist Church heard from colleagues in Sydney that the Branch
Davidians were planning a mass suicide for Easter Sunday. About
the same time the State Department got word from sources in Australia
that Koresh's group was stockpiling arms and planning suicide.
State passed it on to ATF, which begun its investigation in June.
Koresh had been charged with attempted murder in a dispute with
a rival cult leader in 1987; his trial ended in a hung jury.
Vic Feazell, the local district attorney at the time, said he
came to like the cult members: "They're peaceful and nonaggressive
unless they are attacked." By going in, guns blazing, the
ATF played right into the group's apocalyptic vision, he said.
"They would see this as a holy war provoked by an oppressive
At the weekend Koresh told negotiators he had no plans for suicide-and
he was growing irritated at reports that he claimed to be Christ.
Call him a prophet, he said. But Messiah or madman, the fact
remained that Koresh and his followers had killed more ATF agents
in one bloody Sunday than had died in any day in the bureau's
history, and the Davidians would remain a dangerous threat until
the stalement ended.